Recent Changes - Search:

I am not a safety expert, or a chemist. Do not use this site as a primary source for safety, chemistry or disposal information.

edit

SaltS

Soluble.SaltS History

Hide minor edits - Show changes to output

February 04, 2019, at 11:42 AM by 76.248.208.245 -
Added lines 6-7:
This site is intended as a resource for using solubles to affect the surface appearance of clay.
Changed line 11 from:
*affects on the rheology of the glaze such as flocculation, coagulation, deflocculation and thixotropy.
to:
*affects on the rheology of the glaze such as flocculation, coagulation, deflocculation and thixotropy. 
February 04, 2019, at 11:39 AM by 76.248.208.245 -
Changed line 1 from:
!!Soluble Salts and data useful to clayers.
to:
!!Soluble Salts and data useful to ceramists.
Added line 21:
*ChromeNickelCompounds
Deleted line 23:
*ChromeNickelCompounds
Added line 25:
*LithiumCompounds
Added line 30:
*StrontiumCompounds
Added lines 32-34:
*TitaniumNitrate
*ZincCompounds
*ZirconiumCompounds
Changed lines 16-17 from:
to:
AlkaliMetals sodium and potassium general considerations.
Deleted line 18:
Changed lines 20-27 from:
to:
*CalciumCompounds
*CobaltCompounds
*CopperCompounds
*ChromeNickelCompounds
*IronCompounds
*MagnesiumCompounds
*Phosphorus (see trisodium phosphate in SodiumCompounds )
*PotassiumCompounds
Deleted lines 28-38:

*PotassiumCompounds

*IronCompounds

*CopperCompounds

*CobaltCompounds

*ChromeNickelCompounds

Changed lines 31-35 from:
*CalciumCompounds

*MagnesiumCompounds

*Phosphorus (see trisodium phosphate in SodiumCompounds )
to:


April 25, 2016, at 10:54 PM by 76.248.208.103 -
Changed line 2 from:
A good site on this by one of my students! [[http://jamesalexanderferrante.com/soluble-salts-resource| James Alex Ferrante Soluble Salt Resource]]
to:
A good site on this by one of my students: [[http://jamesalexanderferrante.com/soluble-salts-resource| James Alex Ferrante Soluble Salt Resource]]
April 25, 2016, at 10:53 PM by 76.248.208.103 -
Changed lines 2-3 from:
[[http://jamesalexanderferrante.com/soluble-salts-resource| James Alex Ferrante Soluble Salt Resource]]
to:
A good site on this by one of my students! [[http://jamesalexanderferrante.com/soluble-salts-resource| James Alex Ferrante Soluble Salt Resource]]
April 25, 2016, at 10:53 PM by 76.248.208.103 -
Added line 2:
[[http://jamesalexanderferrante.com/soluble-salts-resource| James Alex Ferrante Soluble Salt Resource]]
April 24, 2016, at 04:58 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Deleted lines 34-35:
I am not a safety expert, or a chemist.
Added lines 36-37:

*Phosphorus (see trisodium phosphate in SodiumCompounds )
April 24, 2016, at 04:57 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed line 1 from:
!!Soluble Salts and data useful to ceramicists
to:
!!Soluble Salts and data useful to clayers.
Added lines 3-13:
!!!Introduction
Normally in glazes and surfaces clayers shy away from highly soluble materials. This is because the solubility creates problems including:
*migration of the material into and through porous clay.
*migration into adjacent glazes
*affects on the rheology of the glaze such as flocculation, coagulation, deflocculation and thixotropy.
*some of these materials can be caustic
*increased hazards
*disposal issues
*reactions with other materials
This site is going to try and deal with each of these materials separately and discuss glaze and surface possibilities, and what I think I know about these materials safety, disposal, and reaction issues. In no way should anyone assume that I have any expertise in safety or chemistry and there may be places where the lack of information creates the possibility of a hazard. The material even if correct is certainly not complete.

April 24, 2016, at 04:35 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed lines 2-26 from:
!!!AluminumSalts

!!!BoronCompunds

!!!SodiumCompounds

!!!PotassiumCompounds

!!!IronCompounds

!!!CopperCompounds


!!!CobaltCompounds



!!!
ChromeNickelCompounds

!!!TinCompounds


!!!CalciumCompounds

!!!MagnesiumCompounds
to:
I am not a safety expert, or a chemist.

*
AluminumSalts

*BoronCompunds

*SodiumCompounds

*PotassiumCompounds

*IronCompounds

*CopperCompounds

*CobaltCompounds

*ChromeNickelCompounds

*TinCompounds

*CalciumCompounds

I am not a safety expert, or a chemist.

*
MagnesiumCompounds
April 24, 2016, at 04:32 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Deleted lines 26-31:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_sulfate|Magnesium Sulphate Heptahydrate, Epsom Salts - Wikipedia]]
**Decomposition anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C, monohydrate decomposes at 200°C, heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
**[=Solubility 71 g/100 mL (20 °C)=]
**Majority is used in agriculture
**Reacts with Sodium Carbonate => Magnesium Carbonate and Sodium Sulphate
**
April 24, 2016, at 04:32 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
April 24, 2016, at 04:32 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed lines 20-28 from:
**Louis is no longer messing with these even on paper. It is not that they cannot be used safely, just that they will not be used safely and they will get into the environment.
**Potassium Dichromate [="In 2005–06, potassium dichromate was the 11th-most-prevalent allergen in patch tests (4.8%).[9]

Potassium dichromate is one of the most common causes of chromium dermatitis;[10] chromium is highly likely to induce sensitization leading to dermatitis, especially of the hand and fore-arms, which is chronic and difficult to treat. Toxicological studies have further illustrated its highly toxic nature. With rabbits and rodents, concentrations as low as 14 mg/kg have shown a 50% fatality rate amongst test groups. [11] Aquatic organisms are especially vulnerable if exposed, and hence responsible disposal according local environmental regulations is advised.

As with other CrVI compounds, potassium dichromate is carcinogenic and should be handled with gloves and appropriate health and safety protection. The compound is also corrosive and exposure may produce severe eye damage or blindness.[12] Human exposure further encompasses impaired fertility, heritable genetic damage and harm to unborn children." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_dichromate 2016-04-24 =]

**Nickel "Nickel salts are carcinogenic." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel%28II%29_chloride 2016-04-24

to:
Changed lines 22-27 from:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin%28II%29_chloride|Stannous Chloride - Wikipedia]]
** Melting Point 247 °C (477 °F; 520 K) (anhydrous) (evaporates as a gas)
**Boiling point 623 °C (1,153 °F; 896 K) (decomposes)
**Solubility in water : 83.9 g/100 ml (0 °C) Hydrolyses [=Tin(II) chloride can dissolve in less than its own mass of water without apparent decomposition, but as the solution is diluted hydrolysis occurs to form an insoluble basic salt: SnCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ Sn(OH)Cl (s) + HCl (aq) =]


to:

Deleted lines 24-37:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_chloride|Calcium Chloride - Wikipedia]]
**[=CaCl2=]
**Calcium chloride has a very high enthalpy change of solution. A considerable temperature rise accompanies its dissolution in water. The anhydrous salt is deliquescent; it can accumulate enough water in its crystal lattice to form a solution.
**Calcium chloride is used to increase the water hardness in swimming pools.
**[=Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 74.5 =]
**[[http://www.osi-univers.org/IMG/pdf/CalciumChloridHandbook-2.pdf|Calcium Chloride Handbook]]
**Melting Point_ 772–775 °C (1,422–1,427 °F)
**Boiling Paint_  1,935 °C (3,515 °F) It appears that left to its own devices this material will not decompose in our kilns. I am not sure that this is true. However when it works itself into a glassy melt we should expect that the chlorine will be expelled.
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_sulfate|Calcium Sulphate and related hydrates Plaster of Paris, dead burned plaster ludo etc. - Wikipedia]]
**[=Solubility 0.24 g/100ml at 20 °C (dihydrate)=]
**[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_sulfate|Read about dehydration and temperatures on Wikipedia]]
**[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plaster#Gypsum_plaster_.28plaster_of_Paris.29|Plaster of Paris here]]
** Melting point 1,460 °C (2,660 °F; 1,730 K) (anhydrous)
** Decomposition is aided by presence of silica and alumina http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7224692/ page 10 . I have always assumed that when melted in a glassy melt there is little ability to hold the sulphur dioxide and that it comes off and can be a source of bloating and pinholes. Richard Burkett suggested that decomposition can be aided by reduction of a kiln at or above 1500 F to Calcium Sulfite. The sulfite  melts at600 °C (1,112 °F; 873 K) . I am convinced that calcium sulphate is a source of gases causing pinholing and bloating.
April 24, 2016, at 04:30 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
April 24, 2016, at 04:30 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed line 19 from:
!!!Chrome-Nickel-Compounds
to:
!!!ChromeNickelCompounds
April 24, 2016, at 04:30 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed lines 16-22 from:
*Sulphate
*Chloride "Cobalt chloride has been classified as a substance of very high concern by the European Chemicals Agency as it is a suspected carcinogen."2016
-04-24
**I believe that this chemical reacts with sodium carbonate to produce cobalt carbonate. You would have to wash it to get the extra sodium out of the solution if you were doing this to recover the cobalt. I did this in about 1996 to five pounds or so of the Chloride. My procedure was to dissolve the chloride in water. Then add an excess of sodium carbonate ( I calculated the amount needed) . This reduced the color of the solution to nearly clear after settling. Then I added more sodium carbonate and this made the solution clear. I decanted the water off the settled cobalt carbonate. I mixed up the cobalt carbonate again in a five gallon bucket, decanted it and then dried it out. I used it in one glaze until it was gone.



!!!Chrome - Nickel
Compounds
to:



!!!Chrome
-Nickel-Compounds
April 24, 2016, at 04:28 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed lines 11-20 from:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28II%29_chloride|Ferrous Chloride - Wikipedia]]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28III%29_chloride|Ferric Chloride - Wikipedia]]
**[[http://www.mgchemicals.com/tech-support/ferric_faq/|Ferric Chloride Etchant disposal]]
**[[http://www.scienceforums.net/topic/15843-iron-iii-chloride-to-dissolve-copper/|Etching Chemistry]] 2FeCl4(-) + Cu --> 2Fe(2+) + CuCl4(2-) + 4Cl(-)
**[[https://blog.adafruit.com/2009/01/25/the-chemistry-of-home-etched-pcbs/|Discussion of superiority of non Ferric etchants]]
**[[http://www.artmondo.net/printworks/articles/ferric.htm|This speaks to the superiority of Ferric Chloride etchants]]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28II%29_sulfate|Copperas, Iron (II) sulfate, ferrous sulphate, green vitriol - Wikipedia]]
**[=Upon exposure to air, it oxidizes to form a corrosive brown-yellow coating of basic ferric sulfate, which is an adduct of ferric oxide and ferric sulfate: 12 FeSO4 + 3 O2 → 4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 Fe2O3 =]
**Solubility Heptahydrate: 15.65 g/100 mL (0 °C), 20.5 g/100 mL (10 °C), 29.51 g/100 mL (25 °C), 39.89 g/100 mL (40.1 °C), 51.35 g/100 mL (54 °C)[4]

to:
Changed lines 13-14 from:
*Sulphate
*Chloride
to:
April 24, 2016, at 04:23 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Changed lines 3-12 from:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_sulfate| Aluminum Sulphate - Wikipedia]]
**[=Al2(SO4)3=]
**[=Al2(SO4)3 + 6 NaHCO3 → 3 Na2SO4 + 2 Al(OH)3 + 6 CO2=]
**[=Solubility in water 31.2 g/100 mL (0 °C) , 36.4 g/100 mL (20 °C), 89.0 g/100 mL (100 °C)=]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_alum|Potassium Alum ]]
**[=KAl(SO4)2 and it is commonly found in its dodecahydrate form as KAl(SO4)2·12H2O.=]
**[=Solubility in water 14.00 g/100 mL (20 °C), 36.80 g/100 mL (50 °C)=]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_aluminium_sulfate|Sodium Aluminum Sulfate - Wikipedia]]
**[=NaAl(SO4)2·12H2O (sometimes written Na2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O)=]
**[=Solubility in water, 208 g/100 ml (15 °C)=]
to:
Changed lines 5-7 from:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boric_acid| Boric Acid - Wikipedia]]
**[=H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3)=]
**[=2.52 g/100 mL (0 °C), 4.72 g/100 mL (20 °C), 5.7 g/100 mL (25 °C), 19.10 g/100 mL (80 °C), 27.53 g/100 mL (100 °C)=]
to:
Changed lines 7-15 from:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_sulfate|Sodium Sulphate - Wikipedia]]
**[= Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.=]
**solubility in water
***anhydrous: 4.76 g/100 mL (0 °C), 13.9 g/100 mL (20 °C)[1]
***42.7 g/100 mL (100 °C) heptahydrate:, 19.5 g/100 mL (0 °C), 44 g/100 mL (20 °C)
**"Although sodium sulfate is generally regarded as non-toxic,[28] it should be handled with care. The dust can cause temporary asthma or eye irritation; this risk can be prevented by using eye protection and a paper mask. "
**The decahydrate of sodium sulfate is known as Glauber's Salt. It melts at around 90F .
**[=2NaHCO3 + MgSO4 → Na2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2=]
** do not confuse with sodium sulfide. The sulfide is very caustic.
to:
Deleted lines 8-14:
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_sulfate|Potassium Sulfate - Wikipedia]]
**[=Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) =]
**Commonly used in fertilizers
**It does not form a hydrate, unlike sodium sulfate
**It is sometimes used as an alternative blast media similar to soda in soda blasting as it is harder and similarly water-soluble.
**Solubility in water 111 g/L (20 °C), 120 g/L (25 °C), 240 g/L (100 °C)
**do not confuse with potassium sulfide or liver of sulphur
April 24, 2016, at 04:18 PM by 64.71.89.34 -
Added lines 1-103:
!!Soluble Salts and data useful to ceramicists
!!!AluminumSalts
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_sulfate| Aluminum Sulphate - Wikipedia]]
**[=Al2(SO4)3=]
**[=Al2(SO4)3 + 6 NaHCO3 → 3 Na2SO4 + 2 Al(OH)3 + 6 CO2=]
**[=Solubility in water 31.2 g/100 mL (0 °C) , 36.4 g/100 mL (20 °C), 89.0 g/100 mL (100 °C)=]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_alum|Potassium Alum ]]
**[=KAl(SO4)2 and it is commonly found in its dodecahydrate form as KAl(SO4)2·12H2O.=]
**[=Solubility in water 14.00 g/100 mL (20 °C), 36.80 g/100 mL (50 °C)=]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_aluminium_sulfate|Sodium Aluminum Sulfate - Wikipedia]]
**[=NaAl(SO4)2·12H2O (sometimes written Na2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O)=]
**[=Solubility in water, 208 g/100 ml (15 °C)=]
!!!BoronCompunds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boric_acid| Boric Acid - Wikipedia]]
**[=H3BO3 (sometimes written B(OH)3)=]
**[=2.52 g/100 mL (0 °C), 4.72 g/100 mL (20 °C), 5.7 g/100 mL (25 °C), 19.10 g/100 mL (80 °C), 27.53 g/100 mL (100 °C)=]
!!!SodiumCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_sulfate|Sodium Sulphate - Wikipedia]]
**[= Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.=]
**solubility in water
***anhydrous: 4.76 g/100 mL (0 °C), 13.9 g/100 mL (20 °C)[1]
***42.7 g/100 mL (100 °C) heptahydrate:, 19.5 g/100 mL (0 °C), 44 g/100 mL (20 °C)
**"Although sodium sulfate is generally regarded as non-toxic,[28] it should be handled with care. The dust can cause temporary asthma or eye irritation; this risk can be prevented by using eye protection and a paper mask. "
**The decahydrate of sodium sulfate is known as Glauber's Salt. It melts at around 90F .
**[=2NaHCO3 + MgSO4 → Na2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 + 2CO2=]
** do not confuse with sodium sulfide. The sulfide is very caustic.
!!!PotassiumCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_sulfate|Potassium Sulfate - Wikipedia]]
**[=Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) =]
**Commonly used in fertilizers
**It does not form a hydrate, unlike sodium sulfate
**It is sometimes used as an alternative blast media similar to soda in soda blasting as it is harder and similarly water-soluble.
**Solubility in water 111 g/L (20 °C), 120 g/L (25 °C), 240 g/L (100 °C)
**do not confuse with potassium sulfide or liver of sulphur

!!!IronCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28II%29_chloride|Ferrous Chloride - Wikipedia]]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28III%29_chloride|Ferric Chloride - Wikipedia]]
**[[http://www.mgchemicals.com/tech-support/ferric_faq/|Ferric Chloride Etchant disposal]]
**[[http://www.scienceforums.net/topic/15843-iron-iii-chloride-to-dissolve-copper/|Etching Chemistry]] 2FeCl4(-) + Cu --> 2Fe(2+) + CuCl4(2-) + 4Cl(-)
**[[https://blog.adafruit.com/2009/01/25/the-chemistry-of-home-etched-pcbs/|Discussion of superiority of non Ferric etchants]]
**[[http://www.artmondo.net/printworks/articles/ferric.htm|This speaks to the superiority of Ferric Chloride etchants]]
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron%28II%29_sulfate|Copperas, Iron (II) sulfate, ferrous sulphate, green vitriol - Wikipedia]]
**[=Upon exposure to air, it oxidizes to form a corrosive brown-yellow coating of basic ferric sulfate, which is an adduct of ferric oxide and ferric sulfate: 12 FeSO4 + 3 O2 → 4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 Fe2O3 =]
**Solubility Heptahydrate: 15.65 g/100 mL (0 °C), 20.5 g/100 mL (10 °C), 29.51 g/100 mL (25 °C), 39.89 g/100 mL (40.1 °C), 51.35 g/100 mL (54 °C)[4]

!!!CopperCompounds
*Sulphate
*Chloride

!!!CobaltCompounds
*Sulphate
*Chloride "Cobalt chloride has been classified as a substance of very high concern by the European Chemicals Agency as it is a suspected carcinogen."2016-04-24
**I believe that this chemical reacts with sodium carbonate to produce cobalt carbonate. You would have to wash it to get the extra sodium out of the solution if you were doing this to recover the cobalt. I did this in about 1996 to five pounds or so of the Chloride. My procedure was to dissolve the chloride in water. Then add an excess of sodium carbonate ( I calculated the amount needed) . This reduced the color of the solution to nearly clear after settling. Then I added more sodium carbonate and this made the solution clear. I decanted the water off the settled cobalt carbonate. I mixed up the cobalt carbonate again in a five gallon bucket, decanted it and then dried it out. I used it in one glaze until it was gone.



!!!Chrome - Nickel Compounds
**Louis is no longer messing with these even on paper. It is not that they cannot be used safely, just that they will not be used safely and they will get into the environment.
**Potassium Dichromate [="In 2005–06, potassium dichromate was the 11th-most-prevalent allergen in patch tests (4.8%).[9]

Potassium dichromate is one of the most common causes of chromium dermatitis;[10] chromium is highly likely to induce sensitization leading to dermatitis, especially of the hand and fore-arms, which is chronic and difficult to treat. Toxicological studies have further illustrated its highly toxic nature. With rabbits and rodents, concentrations as low as 14 mg/kg have shown a 50% fatality rate amongst test groups. [11] Aquatic organisms are especially vulnerable if exposed, and hence responsible disposal according local environmental regulations is advised.

As with other CrVI compounds, potassium dichromate is carcinogenic and should be handled with gloves and appropriate health and safety protection. The compound is also corrosive and exposure may produce severe eye damage or blindness.[12] Human exposure further encompasses impaired fertility, heritable genetic damage and harm to unborn children." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_dichromate 2016-04-24 =]

**Nickel "Nickel salts are carcinogenic." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel%28II%29_chloride 2016-04-24

!!!TinCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tin%28II%29_chloride|Stannous Chloride - Wikipedia]]
** Melting Point 247 °C (477 °F; 520 K) (anhydrous) (evaporates as a gas)
**Boiling point 623 °C (1,153 °F; 896 K) (decomposes)
**Solubility in water : 83.9 g/100 ml (0 °C) Hydrolyses [=Tin(II) chloride can dissolve in less than its own mass of water without apparent decomposition, but as the solution is diluted hydrolysis occurs to form an insoluble basic salt: SnCl2 (aq) + H2O (l) ⇌ Sn(OH)Cl (s) + HCl (aq) =]


!!!CalciumCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_chloride|Calcium Chloride - Wikipedia]]
**[=CaCl2=]
**Calcium chloride has a very high enthalpy change of solution. A considerable temperature rise accompanies its dissolution in water. The anhydrous salt is deliquescent; it can accumulate enough water in its crystal lattice to form a solution.
**Calcium chloride is used to increase the water hardness in swimming pools.
**[=Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 74.5 =]
**[[http://www.osi-univers.org/IMG/pdf/CalciumChloridHandbook-2.pdf|Calcium Chloride Handbook]]
**Melting Point_ 772–775 °C (1,422–1,427 °F)
**Boiling Paint_  1,935 °C (3,515 °F) It appears that left to its own devices this material will not decompose in our kilns. I am not sure that this is true. However when it works itself into a glassy melt we should expect that the chlorine will be expelled.
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_sulfate|Calcium Sulphate and related hydrates Plaster of Paris, dead burned plaster ludo etc. - Wikipedia]]
**[=Solubility 0.24 g/100ml at 20 °C (dihydrate)=]
**[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_sulfate|Read about dehydration and temperatures on Wikipedia]]
**[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plaster#Gypsum_plaster_.28plaster_of_Paris.29|Plaster of Paris here]]
** Melting point 1,460 °C (2,660 °F; 1,730 K) (anhydrous)
** Decomposition is aided by presence of silica and alumina http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7224692/ page 10 . I have always assumed that when melted in a glassy melt there is little ability to hold the sulphur dioxide and that it comes off and can be a source of bloating and pinholes. Richard Burkett suggested that decomposition can be aided by reduction of a kiln at or above 1500 F to Calcium Sulfite. The sulfite  melts at600 °C (1,112 °F; 873 K) . I am convinced that calcium sulphate is a source of gases causing pinholing and bloating.

!!!MagnesiumCompounds
*[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_sulfate|Magnesium Sulphate Heptahydrate, Epsom Salts - Wikipedia]]
**Decomposition anhydrous decomposes at 1,124°C, monohydrate decomposes at 200°C, heptahydrate decomposes at 150°C
**[=Solubility 71 g/100 mL (20 °C)=]
**Majority is used in agriculture
**Reacts with Sodium Carbonate => Magnesium Carbonate and Sodium Sulphate
**





Edit - History - Print - Recent Changes - Search
Page last modified on February 04, 2019, at 11:42 AM